Collaborative research report on international human rights law obligations relevant to domestic bills of rights processes

January 2023

The Bonavero Institute of Human Rights at the University of Oxford, the Bingham Centre for the Rule of Law and the Centre for the Study of Human Rights Law have undertaken a joint research project to identify and examine key duties drawn from international human rights law, which are binding on the UK, against which to measure domestic bills of rights processes such as those currently underway in UK and some of its devolved jurisdictions.

The Making of Bills of Rights: Relevant International Human Rights Law Obligations was published in the Bonavero Reports Series in January 2023.

This report explores international human rights standards, particularly those arising from the UN Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the UN Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and highlights five obligations that are relevant both to making and amending domestic bills of rights. It highlights the obligations to respect, protect and fulfil rights; to provide an effective framework of remedies; to provide for effective monitoring and reporting; to ensure public participation; and to avoid regression in rights protection.

These obligations, the report argues, should guide policy makers across the UK when drafting or amending domestic bills of rights.

This project was led by Murray Hunt (Bingham Centre), Professor Alan Miller (Centre for the Study of Human Rights Law), and Professor Kate O’Regan (Bonavero Institute). The principal researcher was Emma Rowland at the Bonavero Institute.

On behalf of the Centre for the Study of Human Rights Law, research was undertaken by Dr Douglas Jack and Robyn Conlan.

For further info on the Centre for the Study of Human Rights Law’s research for the project, or to find out more about follow-up plans in Scotland, please contact Professor Alan Miller ( and Dr Douglas Jack (