Architecture Construction law

The Construction Law Research Cluster (CLRC) at the University of Strathclyde researches the legalities of the construction process. Recently, our research activity has focused in particular on themes of delay & disruption, environmental regulation and corporate corrupt practice.

Our research

The Construction Law Research Cluster (CLRC) was established in 2010 by Dr Andrew Agapiou, Senior Lecturer at the Department of Architecture, University of Strathclyde. Staff in the research cluster are members of the International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB) Working Commission on Law and Dispute Resolution. We also offer training and consultancy on the legal aspects of construction.

Key research areas

CLRC has an international and diverse cohort of PhD students. Our main topics of interest include:


Our research focuses on the interaction of construction lawyers, clients and mediators within the mediation process and on the viability of mediation to resolve planning and environmental disputes.

Arbitration & Adjudication

Work within this context addresses the impacts of legislative changes to the adjudication process within the UK context.

Corporate & Construction Professional Ethics

Our work within this area addresses compliance to ethical code standards within the procurement process. Studies have also been undertaken on the professional ethical standards of arbitration practitioners within the oil and gas industry sector.

Construction Law & Technology-enhanced learning

Research has been undertaken on the utilisation of simulation tools to deliver professional practice skills to Architecture students and professionals.

Regulatory Compliance

Our work has addressed regulatory compliance to building code standards for house-building in Nigeria.

Law, Regulation & Offsite Construction

Research on identifying the legal and contractual aspects of offsite construction methods within housing developments within the UK

To learn more about CLRC, download our Construction Law Research Booklet.

Our research involves working jointly with public and private sector professionals and academics, both locally and internationally.

Academic Leader

Collaborating academics

PhD students

PhD studentTopic
Lin Zhang Risk management framework for offsite construction in China
We Hei A framework for Chinese construction project EOT claims analysis: a comparative study between Chinese and English legal systems
Abdalsalam Almasood Professional regulatory control mechanism for arbitrator professionals in oil and gas investor-state arbitration
Mohammed Alghaseb Adoption of pre-assembled building services components in Saudi Arabia: Consultants’ and Contractors’ Views
Nawaf Alahmadi Nudging Saudi Arabian contracting firms within municipal road projects to bid competitively
John Hughes Global Claims in Engineering and Construction Projects

Research grants & projects

  • Procurement and contract strategies for offsite manufacturing within UK housebuilding.
    Funded by: Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors Research Trust Award Scheme, with the University of Wolverhampton and the New Engineering Contract Users’ Group.
  • Real-Time Simulation of Construction Projects through Hybrid Application of Building Information Modelling and Image Processing.
    Funded by: AFRC - Route to Impact Funding, University of Strathclyde, with the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at University of Strathclyde
  • Scottish Construction Mediation: a survey of the client base.
    Funded by: Strathclyde University Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences Strategic Fund, with the Law School at University of Strathclyde
  • Construction clients and mediation: a follow up study of attitudes and experiences.
    Funded by: Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors Education Trust Award Scheme, with the Law School at University of Strathclyde
  • Lean Construction Design: Optimising the extent of standardisation and off-site assembly to maximise client value.
    Funded by: EPSRC Bridging the Gap Postgraduate Joint Projects Scheme with the Department of Management Science at University of Strathclyde
  • The development and evaluation of a contract management simulation game for Architecture students and professionals.
    Funded by: Association of Scottish Schools of Architecture and the Centre for Education in the Built Environment (CEBE)

Selected Publications

  • Agapiou, A (2018) Mediation and planning disputes in England & Wales: Opportunities and challenges. Procs 34th Annual ARCOM Conference, 3-5 September 2018, Belfast, UK, Association of Researchers in Construction Management.
  • Agapiou, A (2018) Mediating planning disputes: opportunities, experiences and challenges. The Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction, Vol. 10, issue 3, pg. 1-12.
  • Agapiou, A and Clark, B (2018) The practical significance of confidentiality in mediation, Civil Justice Quarterly, January
  • Agapiou, A and Cheung, S.O (2017) Apologies, apology legislation and civil disputes: the practical implications of apology legislation for dispute resolution practitioners and their clients’, International Journal of Arbitration, Mediation and Dispute Management, vol.83, no.2.
  • Agapiou, A and Yakubu, S (2019) Determinants of Non-Compliance with Structural Building Code Standards in Nigeria. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Procurement, Management and Law,172 (2) April.
  • Agapiou, A and Chen, Z (2017) Collaborative Business Relationships: A Means to an End of Construction Disputes or Fuel for the Fire? International Research Week 11-15 September 2017; University of Salford.
  • Agapiou, A (2017) The legal formation, governance and regulation of international construction product sales contracts: a case study vignette. International Research Week 11-15 September 2017; University of Salford.
  • Yakubu, S and Agapiou, A (2017) Building Construction Skills Training for Standards Compliance: The Case of Nigeria. Proc 12th Association of Schools of Construction of Southern Africa
  • (ASOCSA) Built Environment Conference, 6-7 August, Durban, South Africa.
  • Agapiou, A (2019) Optimising the use of off-site manufactured components in the UK house building sector: Understanding the legal and contractual issues in ‘Offsite Production and Manufacturing for Innovative Construction: People, Process and Technology’, Jack Steven Goulding and Farzad Pour Rahimian (eds), Taylor and Francis, London.
  • Zhang, L, Pour Rahimian Leilabadi, F., Agapiou, A, Goulding, J (2017) Offsite construction: an opportunity for improving risk management, International Research Week 11-15 September 2017; University of Salford.

Our research impact

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Our experts


Students Andrea Hickey and Neal Hemingway created ChalkTalk for their Masters project, to encourage discussion and stories about architecture and design within the city during the Merchant City Festival.

Future Architecture Workshop: Merchant City Festival 2015

We invited prospective students of architecture to participate in a day long workshop as part of the Merchant City Festival. Explore our city with them!