Professor Daniel Markl

Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences


Personal statement

Daniel Markl’s research focuses on the coupling of advanced measurement techniques with digital process and product design to improve the way medicines are made. He obtained a BSc (2010) and MSc (2012) in telematics with a focus on neural networks and a PhD (2015) in chemical engineering from Graz University of Technology. Daniel secured an Erasmus Mundus in 2010, which allowed him to study modelling and control system design for one year during his MSc at the Lund University. During his PhD he was employed by the Research Center Pharmaceutical Engineering (RCPE) GmbH, where he was in the group Process and Manufacturing Science and involved in several projects at the interface of pharmaceutical engineering, materials science and process modelling. He continued as Senior Scientist and Scientific Project Leader at RCPE after completing his PhD. In 2016 he joined Professor Zeitler’s group (Terahertz Applications Group) as a postdoctoral research associate at the University of Cambridge. Daniel worked for two years in the Terahertz Applications Group before becoming a Chancellor’s Fellow and Lecturer at the University of Strathclyde in the Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences (SIPBS).

Daniel is Associate Director at the Centre for Continuous Manufacturing and Advanced Crystallisation (CMAC) - check out the Centre and Research Activities at CMAC:

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Area of Expertise

Has expertise in:

  • Material characterisation of solid dosage forms using various advanced technologies (i.e. optical coherence tomography, terahertz imaging and spectroscopy, X-ray computed tomography).
  • Pharmaceutical engineering inclduing compaction process, hot-melt extrusion, fluid-bed and pan coating.
  • Advanced data processing using machine learning principles.
  • Mechanistic modelling of disintegration process (swelling and liquid imbibition process).
  • In-line and on-line process monitoring.

Prize And Awards

President of Pharmaceutical Solid State Research Cluster
Fellowship of Higher Education
AAPS Pharmaceutical Research Meritorious Manuscript Award
Best Poster Award
Erasmus Mundus

More prizes and awards

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Flexible modelling of the dissolution performance of directly compressed tablets
Maclean Natalie, Armstrong John A, Carroll Mark A, Salehian Mohammad, Mann James, Reynolds Gavin, Johnston Blair, Markl Daniel
International Journal of Pharmaceutics Vol 656 (2024)
Machine learning-assisted system of model for optimisation of directly compressed tablets development processes
Salehian Mohammad, Markl Daniel
14th PBP World Meeting on Pharmaceutics, Biopharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology (2024)
Semi-crystalline materials for pharmaceutical fused filament fabrication: Dissolution and porosity
Henry S, Carroll M, Murphy K N, Leys L, Markl D, Vanhoorne V, Vervaet C
International journal of pharmaceutics Vol 652 (2024)
Investigating the effect of sintering rate and solvent type on the liquid transport kinetics of α-alumina powder compacts
Al-Sharabi Mohammed, Markl Daniel, Vivacqua Vincenzino, Bawuah Prince, MacLean Natalie, York Andrew PE, Zeitler J Axel
Chemical Engineering Science Vol 284 (2024)
At-line porosity sensing for non-destructive disintegration testing in immediate release tablets
Bawuah Prince, Evans Mike, Lura Ard, Farrell Daniel J, Barrie Patrick J, Kleinebudde Peter, Markl Daniel, Zeitler J Axel
International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X Vol 5 (2023)
AI-assisted optimisation of oral solid dosage forms development
Salehian Mohammad, Markl Daniel
CMAC Open Days 2023 (2023)

More publications

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Research Interests

My research focuses on the coupling of small-scale experiments, advanced measurement techniques and digital process and product design to improve the way medicines are made. The lab’s multidisciplinary research focuses on drug product manufacturing and in particular on the manufacturing of pharmaceutical tablets. Our research aims to provide the fundamental understanding that is needed for the design of future medications, where the release behaviour and the quality is designed into the solid dosage form. The lab particularly focuses on:

  • Continuous manufacturing: The pharmaceutical industry is introducing continuous manufacturing coupled with real-time release testing to deliver higher quality medicines more effectively to patients. Both patients and manufacturers will benefit from this transition through lower manufacturing costs, better control over product quality, higher flexibility in response to market demands, and the facilitation of more complex medications in an increasingly challenging economic environment. We aim to develop a scientifically sound understanding of the physical structure of the solid oral dosage forms, which is needed for the manufacture of 21st century high-quality medication with targeted release behaviour. Our research will develop the fundamental basis for linking raw material attributes, critical process parameters and critical quality attributes for continuous manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms. 
  • Innovative process analysers: Accurate and continuous monitoring of processes has significant benefits for the pharmaceutical industry as it has the potential to reduce the cost of manufacturing through limiting waste and speeding up the development process whilst enhancing the product quality. This can only be achieved by the use of innovative process analysers which are capable of assessing the quality of a large number of samples in a short period of time. We aim to develop cutting-edge technologies for at-line/on-line and in-line monitoring of critical quality attributes, which are currently not accessible. One of the main technologies in our research is terahertz imaging and spectroscopy as it has outstanding characteristics in terms of its ability to penetrate in the majority of pharmaceutical materials and its measurement speed. 
  • Digitally designed drug products: We aim to develop modelling approaches coupled with experimental methods that enable digital and rapid formulation design of pharmaceutical tablets through the coupling of process and product models. This includes the characterising and mathematical description of particle, granular material and compact characteristics that facilitate the development of models of every step involved in the dissolution process.

Check out the group website on

Professional Activities

Feasibility/Collaboration Proposal: Model calibration as a Tool for Material Characterisation
Integrating Terahertz Spectroscopy and Mechanistic Models for Enhanced Understanding of Pharmaceutical Products
From Particles to Drug Product Performance and Stability
Sensor Enabled Automation
Mechanistic Understanding of Long-term Performance of Oral Medicines. 9th BBBB International Conference on Pharmaceutical Sciences
Rise of Robotics Panel

More professional activities


DTP 2224 University of Strathclyde | Wale, Ishwari Suhas
Markl, Daniel (Principal Investigator) Robertson, John (Co-investigator) Wale, Ishwari Suhas (Research Co-investigator)
01-Jan-2023 - 01-Jan-2027
DTP 2224 University of Strathclyde | Robertson, Jason
Johnston, Blair (Principal Investigator) Markl, Daniel (Co-investigator) Robertson, Jason (Research Co-investigator)
01-Jan-2023 - 01-Jan-2029
Recounting an Ancient Story of Crystallisation: Saffron Rock Candy
Salehian, Mohammad (Principal Investigator) Al Qaraghuli, Mohammed (Co-investigator) Hone, Scott (Co-investigator) Clark, Catriona (Co-investigator) Markl, Daniel (Co-investigator) Florence, Alastair (Co-investigator)
Funding: Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) Engagement Grant Programme (£1500)
Summary: In this project, we aim to raise awareness of crystallisation science among students of primary and secondary schools through easy-to-follow, self-paced experimental packages. We will demonstrate the crystallisation process in the case of rock candy, along with the underlying science in an easy-to-understand manner. As part of the engagement strategy, crystallisation science's cultural and historical aspects will also be considered. Audiences will learn how crystals form, practice the science behind solubility and super-saturated solutions and understand the impact of crystallisation conditions (such as temperature, pressure, seeding, and concentration) on the final structure and the taste of sugar crystals. The key concepts include crystal growth, seeding crystals, solvent/solute, and solubility.
09-Jan-2023 - 09-Jan-2023
Industrial CASE Account - University of Strathclyde 2022 | Fetah, Banaz
Oswald, Iain (Principal Investigator) Markl, Daniel (Co-investigator) Fetah, Banaz (Research Co-investigator)
01-Jan-2022 - 01-Jan-2026
DTP 2224 University of Strathclyde | Tsioutsios, Alexandros
Markl, Daniel (Principal Investigator) Johnston, Blair (Co-investigator) Tsioutsios, Alexandros (Research Co-investigator)
01-Jan-2022 - 01-Jan-2026
KTP - GlaxoSmithKline plc. Understanding the different polymorphs in APIs which impact stability and biopharmaceutics.
Markl, Daniel (Principal Investigator) Oswald, Iain (Co-investigator)
01-Jan-2022 - 31-Jan-2024

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Professor Daniel Markl
Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences

Tel: 444 7115