Dr Penelope Haddrill

Teaching Associate

Pure and Applied Chemistry


Variation in the intensity of selection on codon bias over time causes contrasting patterns of base composition evolution in Drosophila
Jackson Benjamin C., Campos José L., Haddrill Penelope R., Charlesworth Brian, Zeng Kai
Genome Biology and Evolution Vol 9, pp. 102-123, (2017)
The discovery, distribution, and evolution of viruses associated with Drosophila melanogaster
Webster Claire L., Waldron Fergal M., Robertson Shaun, Crowson Daisy, Ferrari Giada, Quintana Juan F., Brouqui Jean-Michel, Bayne Elizabeth H., Longdon Ben, Buck Amy H., Lazzaro Brian P., Akorli Jewelna, Haddrill Penelope R., Obbard Darren J.
PLOS Biology Vol 13, pp. 1-33, (2015)
Strain-specific and pooled genome sequences for populations of Drosophila melanogaster from three continents
Bergman Casey M., Haddrill Penelope R
F1000Research Vol 4, (2015)
The relation between recombination rate and patterns of molecular evolution and variation in Drosophila melanogaster
Campos José L, Halligan Daniel L, Haddrill Penelope R, Charlesworth Brian
Molecular Biology and Evolution Vol 31, pp. 1010-1028, (2014)
Estimation of the spontaneous mutation rate per nucleotide site in a Drosophila melanogaster full-sib family
Keightley Peter D, Ness Rob W, Halligan Daniel L, Haddrill Penelope R
Genetics Vol 196, pp. 313-320, (2014)
Codon usage bias and effective population sizes on the X chromosome versus the autosomes in Drosophila melanogaster
Campos Jose L, Zeng Kai, Parker Darren J, Charlesworth Brian, Haddrill Penelope R
Molecular Biology and Evolution Vol 30, pp. 811-823, (2013)

more publications


I teach a variety of topics in forensic science, principally in the area of forensic biology, across first to final year BSc/MChem Forensic and Analytical Chemistry undergraduates, and to MSc Forensic Science postgraduate students. I lecture on a range of trace evidence types, including fibres, hairs, pollen, glass and paint, and cover the search and recovery of trace evidence as well as the evaluation of its significance using frequency databases. I also cover methods for the analysis of trace evidence, including a variety of specialised microscopy techniques and colour/dye analyses. I deliver advanced modules on DNA evidence, covering theoretical and practical aspects of DNA profiling, the interpretation and population genetic analysis of DNA profiling data, and methods for dealing with DNA mixtures, which result in profiles that include contributions from more than one individual. I teach biological evidence evaluation, including the evaluation of sexual offence and DNA evidence, incorporating the calculation of random match probabilities and likelihood ratios, and the use of the Bayesian framework for assessing the significance of evidence. I also coordinate the major crime scene exercise, which runs as part of the MSc Forensic Science, during which students investigate simulated outdoor crime scenes, develop forensic strategy, undertake all laboratory analysis and evidence interpretation, then present their evidence in court in a joint exercise with the University of Strathclyde Law School.

Research interests

My research background is in molecular and population genetics, which are the fields of science that underpin the analysis, statistical interpretation and evaluation of forensic DNA evidence. I have therefore developed forensic genetics research by applying my experience to questions of a forensic nature. I am interested in the development of nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) assays to determine the source, type, age and time of deposition of forensic samples, such as single or mixed body fluid stains and touch DNA. Current research in forensic genetics includes development of DNA methylation models to accurately determine the age of the donor of unknown body fluid samples, RNA degradation assays to determine the time of deposition of body fluid stains and the use of novel DNA profiling methods across different global populations. 


Pure and Applied Chemistry
Royal College Building

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