- UCAS Code: MR14
- Start date: Sep 2020
Study abroad: exchange partnerships in Valencia & Zaragoza
Part-time study: available
Applicant visit day: March each year
Study with us
- develop an awareness of law and the legal implications of business operations which is sought after by employers
- focus on contemporary language and culture
- opportunity to study Spanish as a beginner
- progress to our LLB (Graduate Entry) after completing a joint Honours degree with Law and another subject
Why this course?
There are a number of ways you can study law at Strathclyde, one such way being the BA degree in combination with another subject. Please note that studying law within the BA degree will not qualify you for entry to the legal profession. For professional qualifications in Law, students follow the LLB programme.
Law is concerned with the study of the obligations, duties and rights which every member of society has in relation to one another and to the state.
The study of law is regarded not as purely vocational, but part of a broader education.
With more than 500 million native speakers, Spanish is the second most commonly spoken language in the world. Speaking Spanish will help you conduct business more confidently in countries that are becoming increasingly important in world markets.
Studying with us will give you the chance to become a fluent linguist and, with our year abroad programme, an opportunity to experience living, working and/or studying in another country.
Our BA degrees in Humanities & Social Sciences are initially broad-based. In Year 1, you'll study three subjects, including your chosen subject(s).
What you’ll study
In every year, teaching focuses heavily on language work, but you'll also discover the culture of Spain and Spanish-speaking countries.
Two streams are offered in first-year: one for students with Higher Spanish or equivalent qualification in their chosen language and another for those without. Students in both classes study contemporary Spanish language and aspects of the country’s culture and society.
Year 2 & 3
You'll continue to develop your reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills. In the cultural class each year, you'll learn more about the history, politics, literature, and cinema of Spain and Spanish-speaking countries.
Honours students spend a year abroad after Year 3, usually working as an English teaching assistant, gaining experience on a work placement or studying at a foreign institution.
This is a central highlight of the course and a major formative experience for students not just in terms of language, but on many different levels, personal as well as professional.
In your final year, you'll concentrate on translation, written and oral language and interpreting. You'll also have the chance to write a dissertation in Spanish. If however, you choose to write your dissertation for your other Honours subjects, you'll take two of our cultural classes. These classes reflect the research expertise of our staff and currently focus on topics such as social and political issues in Spanish and Latin American cinema, Spanish 20th century philosophy and history or an Introduction to Translation theory.
At Honours level, you'll work on a specific project for your dissertation. You'll be supervised by a member of our teaching staff.
We welcome enquires from prospective students interested in doing a research MA or a PhD in the areas of Contemporary Latin American fiction and film. Topics of special interest include:
- the politics of the fantastic
- socio-political marginality
If your interests align with these topics and you would like to have an informal discussion with your potential supervisor, please email Dr Jesús Rodero.
The Stevenson Exchange Scholarship is a competitive award which offers students funding towards a project they wish to undertake while on their year abroad. Staff select and interview several candidates for this each year. Our students usually do well in this competition; in 2019, one student secured £2000 towards his project.
The first-year class, Introduction to Law & Legal Obligations, introduces the laws of contract and delict, which are the essential building blocks of most other areas of law, the court systems and judicial decision-making, and the law-making process in the UK.
Years 2, 3 & 4
You select classes according to your interests from a wide range of options, including Human Rights, Environmental Law, Criminal Law, Public International Law, and Law, Film & Popular Culture.
We're a 5-star
The aims of this class are to:
- provide students with a basic knowledge of the history, structure and institutions of the Scottish legal system
- provide students with the skills required to find, interpret and analyse the law applicable in Scotland, from all their various sources
- introduce students to competing conceptions of law
- introduce students to legal reasoning
Public Law 1
Following on from the introduction to the constitution – its key actors, institutions and their functions – in Public Law 1, students taking Public Law 2 will build upon that knowledge here: first by focusing on the ways in which legal (judicial review) and quasi-legal (tribunals, public inquiries, ombudsmen) bodies supervise the exercise of constitutional and administrative decision making; secondly, by a detailed analysis of the political and legal mechanisms which exist for the protection of fundamental rights and freedoms. As such, Public Law 2 is concerned with the abuse of power, and the ways and means by which power can be limited and held to account – whether that is the power of a golf club to suspend an unruly member, the power of a local authority to order the compulsory purchase of privately owned property, or the power of the Prime Minister to wage war.
This course will further your knowledge of the Spanish language and develop the skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking in the Spanish language through intensive practical and communicative language work. This course aims to bring you up to level A2 of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. You'll extend your knowledge of the cultures of the Spanish-speaking world and focus on the development of contemporary Latin America and on how issues relating to it are reflected in its cultural production (for example, films, journalism, songs).
Following on from Spanish 1A, this course will broaden your knowledge of the Spanish language, and enhance basic skills already acquired in reading, writing, listening and speaking. This course aims to bring you up to level A2+ of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. It'll also introduce you to new aspects of the culture of Spain through the materials used. Practical language activities, such as pair and small group work and intensive exposure to Spanish through audio, video and written texts, will enable you to progress from the levels achieved in Spanish 1A. Successful completion of this class will enable students to take Spanish 2A in semester 1 of second year.
Introduction to Spanish 1A
This course aims to give an introduction to the Spanish language, assuming limited or no previous knowledge of Spanish. It introduces everyday Spanish language, as well as certain aspects of the cultures of the Spanish-speaking world. The class is intended to help students to develop the skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking in basic Spanish.
Introduction to Spanish 1B
This course builds on and develops the knowledge acquired in Introduction to Spanish 1A. The class will broaden your knowledge of Spanish language and enhance skills already acquired of reading, writing, listening and speaking in basic Spanish. This class also introduces students to new aspects of the culture of the Spanish-speaking world.
Public Law 2
Following on from Public Law 1, Public Law 2 aims to consolidate knowledge and understanding of constitutional and administrative law. Students taking this class will require to have taken Public Law 1 in the first year. It'll build upon knowledge of the key concepts and institutions of the UK constitution. As a second year class, its rationale is to give students the opportunity to progress from an understanding of the constitution to an understanding of the role of the law in the constitutional control of public power. This course encourages students to adopt an evaluative and critical stance towards ongoing constitutional developments. The course will focus on control of administrative action, both by the judiciary and by ombudsmen. The protection of individual rights will be a key feature, focusing on judicial protection but also encompassing the role of human rights institutions in the UK and Scotland. The future control of public power will be discussed, including topical debates concerning constitutional reform in this area.
Family law concerns the control which the law exerts over domestic relationships and families; it affects everyone to a greater or lesser degree.
- the legal status of children, parental responsibilities and rights and the upbringing of children - including issues in adoption and fostering, local authority care and the Children's Hearing system
- legal consequences of marriage/civil partnership
- divorce - including what happens to the family and its financial consequences
- unmarried domestic relations, opposite-sex and same-sex
Commercial law is a second year compulsory subject on the LLB (and LML) degree. The class provides students with an understanding of commercial law in a Scottish context. It partially meets the commercial law subject requirements and related skills outcomes of the Law Society of Scotland and the Faculty of Advocates (albeit that some of the commercial professional topics, eg sale of goods and insurance law, are dealt with by other courses).
Building on the knowledge acquired by students in first year, the general academic objective of the course is to examine the basic principles and rules concerning core aspects of commercial law, including the main principles of agency, partnership and company law, the law relating to various methods of payment (including consumer credit and bills of exchange) the rules governing the ways in which creditors can ‘secure’ repayment of a debt (eg through taking personal guarantees from third parties for repayment of the debt, or by establishing rights in security over debtor property); the basic principles of diligence; the consequences of both corporate and individual debtor inability to repay debts (corporate insolvency and personal bankruptcy respectively).
While the focus of the class is on ‘a black letter’ analysis of relevant statutory and common law in the broad commercial area, in order to aid understanding of relevant principles, the class also examines the policy rationales underlying the current law and recent and projected reforms in this area.
Involuntary Obligations: Delict & Unjustified Enrichment
The design of this class is primarily aimed at enhancing students’ ability to read cases, deal with case law and apply the techniques of case-analysis and common law development.
The student will acquire an in-depth and up to date knowledge and understanding, from both a legal and a social perspective, of the rules of law governing involuntary obligations, that is to say the law of delict and the law of unjustified enrichment.
Students will acquire the ability to apply the rules of law to particular fact situations in order to provide definitive answers to the problems exposed in these situations.
Students will develop critical and reasoning skills, giving them the ability to make and present personal and informed judgments on the rules of law and their application within the domestic legal system.
Property Trusts & Succession
The general rationale of this class is to provide students with a contemporary understanding of the law of property, trusts and succession in Scotland, and to meet Law Society of Scotland requirements in this subject-area.
The EU law class focuses on the constitutional and institutional order of the EU as well as on the internal market. To this end, the class looks at the European integration process, the EU institutions, EU competences, the decision-making process within the EU, the principles underpinning the EU legal order and the principles governing the internal market.
This course will introduce you to more complex and formal areas of language, and enable you to develop further the skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking in the Spanish language. It'll also introduce you to certain aspects of the different cultures of Spain and Latin America through the materials used. Practical language activities such as pair and small group work and intensive exposure to the Spanish language through audio, video and written texts will build on what you already know, and give you a feel for the Spanish language as it is used in professional contexts. This course aims to bring you up to level A2+/B1 of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages.
This course builds on and develops the knowledge acquired in Spanish 2A and will introduce you to yet more complex and formal areas of language, improving and developing further the skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking in the Spanish language. It'll also introduce you to certain aspects of the culture of Spain and Latin America through the materials used. Practical language activities such as pair and small group work and intensive exposure to the Spanish language through audio, video and written texts will build on what you already know, and give you a feel for the Spanish language as it is used in professional contexts. Successful completion of this class will enable students to take Spanish at third-year level. This course aims to bring you up to level B1+ of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages.
Spanish & Latin American Studies II
This course will explore the interlinked themes of independence and isolation in Spain and Latin America. The class is intended to give students a broad overview of Spanish and Latin American social, political and cultural history through the examination of specific texts and films, as well as to develop their critical and research skills.
The main focus of the course is on providing an overview of how the handling and proving of facts works in law and how this interacts with the law of evidence. The emphasis is on understanding and application, rather than the learning of the specific details of legal rules.
The course has three general academic aims:
- to introduce students to theoretical and practical issues relating to the use and proof of facts in the Scottish legal system
- introduce students to the central concepts, rules and principles of the Scots law of Evidence
- give students an understanding of the interrelationship between the theory, practice and law relating to the use and proof of facts in the Scottish legal system
Law, Film & Popular Culture
The main aim of this class is to introduce students to the major theoretical ideas and values of law, and to debates about those ideas and values, thereby enhancing their understanding of law in general.
The class explores relationships between law and morality, law and society and between law and power. In doing so, the course also explores what we mean by law, morality and power. The course requires students to work on their own and make an oral presentation and trains then in concise thinking.
The aim of the class is to introduce the student to the law of landlord and tenant, and to concepts of housing need and market allocation of housing resources and the different ways in which such concepts are interpreted and operated in modern Britain. The method of teaching and assessing the class is designed to enhance learning, academic and transferable skills.
International Private Law
This class aims to provide students with an understanding of the problems inherent in situations involving a foreign element and the basic concepts and principles of Scots international private law. More particularly, attention will be given to the rules which establish when the Scottish court has jurisdiction in any case involving a foreign element. The class will also determine the applicable law in cases involving international elements heard before a Scottish court and the rules on recognition and enforcement of judgments in certain contexts.
The International private law rules in relation to:
- divorce & nullity
- parent & child
- insolvency & succession
Tutorials for this class take place on Saturday mornings.
This class is not recommended for Erasmus exchange students.
Most industrialised countries, and the European Union now have elaborate laws, rules and procedures for ensuring the maintenance of a competitive economy. This course looks at how the competition laws of the United Kingdom and the European Union affect how business operates in Britain.
If you're contemplating a career in business, or are simply a consumer, some knowledge of competition is useful. If you're a student of industrial economics, or of marketing, some knowledge of competition law is a wise precaution. Moreover there are considerably more job opportunities in this area, whether as an economic adviser, legal practitioner or in-house lawyer advising on effective compliance.
Although we are all equal in the law, some are treated more equally than others. This module examines the nature of discrimination and some of the reasons for it, and the history of the law which tries to prohibit it and promote equality. The class looks in depth at the Equality Act 2010 and relevant case law. It covers the protected characteristics, direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, victimisation and disability discrimination, including the duty to make reasonable adjustments. As well as individual anti-discrimination law in employment and goods and services, the class examines preventive and pro-active measures, including positive action and the public equality duty and the arguments around their nature.
Assessment consists of a group presentation on an approved topic of your choice and a piece of coursework requiring problem solving skills and analysis of law and policy.
Ethics & Justice
The Ethics and Justice class aims to introduce students to the world of work by bridging the gap between theory and practice, and by providing them with the intellectual and practical tools to deal with the personal and practical dimensions of law in a competent, ethical and socially responsible manner.
The class will help to develop students’ legal, intellectual and practical skills, and provide them with an opportunity to reflect on the effectiveness and ethics of what they do and how this fits in with problems of access to justice. It will also enhance student understanding of the social and economic context in which legal rules operate.
This class is only open to Law Clinic students with case experience.
The extensive uptake of new digital information technologies and particularly, the internet, has resulted in expanding our legal universe, with new laws being created, the application of older laws being challenged and reconfigured and, unavoidably, new legal challenges arising due to conflicts of regulatory decisions with technological advances.
The aim of the class is to address the basic issues arising from the advent of the internet and related digital technologies and familiarise students with important legal developments that have taken place in the last 20 years.
Crime & Punishment
This class encourages students to think constructively and critically about contemporary issues in the field of criminology. It also focuses on contemporary responses to crime in the fields of punishment, imprisonment and penal policy, with reference to developments in Scotland and beyond.
Human Rights Law
This class deals with the questions, what are those 'basic' or 'fundamental' rights and freedoms to which every individual is entitled in a democratic society, and how to protect them against possible violations.
The class focuses on a selection of the most prominent human rights which have resulted in considerable amounts of litigation. You'll consider the right to life, right not to be tortured, freedom of expression, children’s rights and issues regarding terrorism.
This class aims to provide students with an understanding of employment law in a UK and EU-wide context and to introduce students to the sources, principles and main features of employment law.
You'll learn about key employment protection provisions and the major collective provisions of employment law in the UK, including the legal position of the contract of employment, the status of employee, the law and practice of unfair dismissal, discrimination law and working time regulations.
The class will focus on practical employment law involving practitioners, an Employment Judge and an Employment Tribunal visit.
Banking Law & Finance
This course is concerned with the legal relationship of banker and customer and the services offered by bankers in the community. It examines the financial instruments employed in financing trading and other transactions and is especially concerned with the law and practice of lending, both secured and unsecured.
Intellectual Property Law
Intellectual property is integral to all our daily lives, whether it is the music we listen to, the news we read, or chair we sit on, as well as providing the resources necessary to produce new medicines, and the superabundance of brand marketing to which we are routinely subjected.
The class will study the law of patents, trademarks (registered and unregistered), copyright, and moral rights, and the law of confidence (which includes trade secrets). Both the substantive law, and the underlying policy behind providing exclusive rights for this type of property will be examined.
Public International Law
Interested in what is going on in Syria? Concerned about what may or may not be going on in North Korea? Pondering why troops are still in Afghanistan? Then public international law might be the class for you.
The class explores the relationships between states as among themselves and with international institutions. As well as giving an overall view of the area, we'll also look at specific incidents which have arisen and which have been dominated by international law, and which in turn have made huge contributions to the area.
The syllabus looks at sources including treaties and customary law, statehood, the collective use of force, state responsibility and terrorism, the International Criminal Court and the International Court of Justice.
Local Government Law
This class is evening teaching only.
In Scotland, local government employs around 250,000 people. Every council has its own legal department and nearly 10% of practising solicitors in Scotland are employed by local authorities. It is essential that lawyers in private practice have knowledge of how local government works.
The course will cover a selection of the following topics:
- what local government is and what does it does
- the constitutional position of local government
- the structure of Scottish local government and its statutory framework
- elections to and membership of a local authority
- rights, duties, liabilities and restrictions of councillors
- the councillors’ Code of Conduct and registration of interests
- the powers of local government; the ultra vires rule; community planning; the power of wellbeing; publicity powers
- byelaws, management rules and private Acts of Parliament
- how councils work; the political dimension
- external controls on local government; the courts; the ombudsman, the Standards Commission, the Accounts Commission
- a brief guide to local government finance
This course builds on and develops the knowledge acquired in Spanish 2B and will consolidate the students’ knowledge and use of the Spanish language within an appropriate cultural context in order to enable the student to live, study and work in a Spanish-speaking country. This course aims to bring you up to level B2 of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages.
This course aims to build on and develop the knowledge acquired in Spanish 3A and will focus on two relevant topics which includes the preparation for the year abroad. This course aims to bring you up to level B2+ of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. In addition to the final exam, a comprehensive project will comprise the other 50% of your final mark for this course. This project will enable you to put into practice and further develop the linguistic skills and cultural knowledge you have developed since you started studying Spanish at Strathclyde.
Spanish & Latin American Studies III
This course builds on and develops the knowledge acquired in Independence and isolation in Spain and Latin America - Hispanic Studies 2 (R4200), and adds a dimension of critical and theoretical awareness, as well as developing critical skills through a study of individual texts and films from Spain and different countries of Latin America, to build an understanding of the history and cultures in which they were produced.
This is the year abroad, spent either studying in a foreign university or working as a language assistant or on a work placement. This year is compulsory to gain entry into Honours.
Spanish Honours Language 4
There are three strands in the Spanish 4 Language programme, which are closely integrated with each other: Language A (writing in Spanish), Language B (analysis and translation into English of Spanish texts), and Language C (oral presentation and interpreting). The programme will enable students to function in the target language at a sufficiently high level of ability, both spoken and written, to be accepted as a fully competent member of the target language community, and effectively to discharge a professional role within and/or in relation to that community.
Hispanic Studies 4
This is a level four Honours class designed to build on the knowledge of Hispanic cultural studies acquired in Spanish and Latin American Studies 1A, II and III. The purpose of this class is to explore contemporary issues in Hispanic cultures. Class content will reflect the research specialisms of staff in Spanish and the actual texts and films studies may vary from year to year to reflect student demand and staff availability, as determined by the research focus of the subject. Each year, the class will focus on specific aspects of Hispanic history, politics, society and/or cultures. For example, possible class titles are: Gender and Sexuality in the Hispanic world; The Politics of the Fantastic in Hispanic Fiction and Film; Dictatorship and Resistance in Hispanic Cinema.
The Latin American Short Story
This course builds on and develops the knowledge on Latin American literature and culture acquired in Spanish and Latin American Studies II and III; and adds a dimension of theoretical analysis, as well as developing critical skills through a study of texts from the different countries of Latin America.
Shaping Spain: Ideas, Beliefs & Identity
Rooted in the Spanish History of Ideas, this course explores the condition and motivations for the development of some of the existing main currents of thought in Spain since 1989. It encourages a critical understanding of Spanish history and contextualises the work of several Spanish seminal thinkers (Unamuno, Ortega, Azaña and Zambrano) and it explores their thought in relation to the key themes of the course: ideas, beliefs, and identity.
Our assessment methods include:
- multiple choice exams
- problem-based and critical analysis essays
- group work
- case studies
- reflective diaries
Our assessment methods include:
- written exams, including translations
- writing for a specific purpose
Continuous assessment ranges from online grammar tests to group projects, while oral/aural tests are performed throughout the course. Students write a dissertation in their final year.
Learning & teaching
Our teaching aims to help students develop knowledge and understanding of the principles, nature and development of law and legal institutions in Scotland and in other jurisdictions. The programme is delivered by leading academics through a combination of lectures, seminars, workshops and webcasts.
We focus on the four important language skills:
We make great use of technology in the classroom – interactive lectures and digital language laboratories – and outside, through the use of web-based learning and streamed Spanish television.
In later years you'll perform presentations, write reports and interpret into English, which prepares you for potential future careers.
Required subjects are shown in brackets.
Standard entry requirements:
(Higher English, Higher Spanish, Maths/Applications of Mathematics National 5 B, or equivalent)
Minimum entry requirements*:
(Higher English B, Higher Spanish B, and Maths/Applications of Mathematics National 5 C)
Year 1 entry: ABB-BBB
(A Level Spanish B, GCSE English Language 6/B or Literature 6/B, GCSE Maths 4/C)
Year 1 entry: A in Graded Unit; Maths National 5 B, or equivalent
- deferred entry is not normally accepted
- student numbers for optional classes may be limited in years 3 and 4
We want to increase opportunities for people from every background. Strathclyde selects our students based on merit, potential and the ability to benefit from the education we offer. We look for more than just your grades. We consider the circumstances of your education and will make lower offers to certain applicants as a result.
Glasgow is Scotland's biggest & most cosmopolitan city
Our campus is based in the very heart of Glasgow, Scotland's largest city. National Geographic named Glasgow as one of its 'Best of the World' destinations, while Rough Guide readers have voted Glasgow the world’s friendliest city! And Time Out named Glasgow in the top ten best cities in the world - we couldn't agree more!
We're in the city centre, next to the Merchant City, both of which are great locations for sightseeing, shopping and socialising alongside your studies.
Find out what some of our students think about studying in Glasgow!Find out all about life in Glasgow
Fees & funding
All fees quoted are for full-time courses and per academic year unless stated otherwise.
Fees for students domiciled in Scotland and the EU are subject to confirmation in early 2020 by the Scottish Funding Council.
|Rest of UK|
Assuming no change in RUK fees policy over the period, the total amount payable by undergraduate students will be capped. For students commencing study in 2020/21, this is capped at £27,750 (with the exception of the MPharm and integrated Masters programmes), MPharm students pay £9,250 for each of the four years. Students studying on integrated Masters degree programmes pay an additional £9,250 for the Masters year with the exception of those undertaking a full-year industrial placement where a separate placement fee will apply.
|University preparation programme fees|
International students can find out more about the costs and payments of studying a university preparation programme at the University of Strathclyde International Study Centre.
Course materials & costs
Recommended text for first year Law module 'Law & Society' M9113 costs £30.
Course materials & costs
The majority of course materials are available to students via Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). Students can print course materials at their own expense.
The cost of course texts does not normally exceed £30 per academic year. Key language texts are used over 2 or 3 years of study. Multiple copies are also available in the University Library.
Studying abroad is an integral part of the degree course in Modern Languages - and usually takes place in Year 4. Students who choose to study in France or Spain are eligible for an Erasmus and grant to help minimise the extra costs of living abroad. This however, is not a full maintenance grant.
Typically, students will receive around £3,000 for a full academic year of study abroad. Students are required to meet travel, accommodation and extra living costs. These costs will vary dependent on the country of study. An estimated extra spend of £1,000 should be budgeted.
A range of scholarships are available for students of Modern Languages and awarded on a competitive basis.
Students who work as English language assistants will receive a monthly stipend. In the case of France, this amounts approximately to €964.88 per month gross (€800 net after social security deductions). Similar stipends are paid in Spain.
Please note: All fees shown are annual and may be subject to an increase each year. Find out more about fees.
Degree preparation course for international students
We offer international students (non-EU/UK) who do not meet the academic entry requirements for an undergraduate degree at Strathclyde the option of completing an Undergraduate Foundation year programme at the University of Strathclyde International Study Centre.
Upon successful completion, you will be able to progress to this degree course at the University of Strathclyde.
How can I fund my studies?
Students from Scotland and the EU
If you're a Scottish or EU student, you may be able to apply to the Student Award Agency Scotland (SAAS) to have your tuition fees paid by the Scottish government. Scottish students may also be eligible for a bursary and loan to help cover living costs while at University.
Students from England, Wales & Northern Ireland
We have a generous package of bursaries on offer for students from England, Northern Ireland and Wales:
You don’t need to make a separate application for these. When your place is confirmed at Strathclyde, we’ll assess your eligibility. Have a look at our scholarship search for any more funding opportunities.
International Students (Non-UKScholarships, EEA)
We have a number of scholarships available to international students. Take a look at our scholarship search to find out more.
Graduates who have studied Law and another discipline may find openings in government services, commerce and industry, banking and insurance, management and administration, where knowledge of the legal implications of business practice is of value. Some graduates continue to an accelerated graduate LLB degree, usually with the aim of entering the legal profession.
Modern language graduates are in high-demand across a range of areas. Some language graduates become teachers or translators, while others work in multilingual or international environments. Many of our students now work in journalism and broadcasting.